HIV & TB
How does the presentation of TB differ in HIV positive cases?
Cough is reported less frequently among HIV positive TB cases, since there is less cavitation, inflammation and endo-bronchial irritation because of impaired cellular immunity. Majority of HIV positive pulmonary TB cases is smear positive though their proportion is less than among HIV negative pulmonary TB cases. The main types of Extra-pulmonary TB seen among HIV positive patients are - lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, miliary TB and tuberculous bacteraemia.